Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM)
Measures and equipment to prevent vehicle-borne threats
What is HVM?
It is important to protect high-risk areas as well as its assets and people with a vehicle mitigation system.
What are vehicle-borne threats?
Examples of HVM
What standards are in place?
ISO IWA 14-1 – The international standard
BSI PAS 68 – the UK standard
ASTM F2656-07 – the US standard.
Where is HVM used?
HVM and VBIED
How HVM works
1. Vehicle approaches
2. Bollards stop vehicle
3. Impact mitigated
How to reduce vulnerability at your site
Understanding the threat
It’s important to understand the type of threat being faced at your location. One of the first things to consider is the Modus Operandi (MO) which is the methods a criminal or terrorist might use when attacking.
An attacker will not comply to traffic rules when carrying out an attack. The security measures many places don’t cater for the fact that a hostile vehicle would happily drive against traffic, ram through orange cones or trick their way in to mention a few examples.
It is also important to consider the threat vehicle(s) and their typical characteristics. The typical mass and speed as well as special structural characteristics are all necessary to factor in when taking steps to reduce vulnerability.
Lastly, many attacks are carried out using explosives. That’s why blast effect and stand-off also must be considered when planning a vehicle mitigation system.
An attacker might use following methods to gain unlawful access or cause harm to people or assets:
- PARKED: Parking a car carrying an explosive or other harmful materials
- ENCROACHMENT: Exploiting gaps, tailgating through barrier systems or tampering with security equipment.
- PENETRATIVE IMPACT: Ramming into people, buildings, or assets.
- DECEPTION: Using deceptions such as a Trojan vehicle to access unlawfully.
- DURESS: Threatening an employee to let them in
Determining the necessary HVM measures
There are many things to be considered when improving the security at your site and setting up a vehicle mitigation system.
Spaces must be kept safe and functional. Pedestrian and traffic throughput is vital. It must be functional for every day use, allowing people to go by their business without being obstructed or slowed down.
Operators and owners must consider if any health or safety standards must be met, and what the logistics allow for regarding traffic management and flow.
The aesthetics of the site should also be taken into consideration. Subtle Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) measures are less obstructive to every day life and the general experience. This is especially important in public places and locations where experience is at the center such as sporting precincts, theaters and museums.
These are all factors that must be taken into consideration when setting up a vehicle mitigation system. Our experts at VBIED Bollards specialise in solutions that meet industry standards and that also blend in seamlessly with the environment.
A soft approach to hard security
Many Hostile Vehicle Mitigation (HVM) measures can be incorporated into the scenery in a natural and subtle way. Staircases can function as a natural obstruction for the most common vehicles, making the site less desirable to attack.
Trees, boulders and curved roads can also provide natural protection to a site.
Bollards are a solution many owners and site operators go for, as they are versatile, heavy duty and customisable. Bollards can be disguised as planters, furniture, lights or other architectural objects that can be decorative or useful.
One example is the Wall Street Bollards in New York that don’t only prevent vehicles from driving on the side walk; they also look like pieces of art, while providing seating for pedestrians.
It’s important to install bollards made by professionals to ensure they are of sufficient quality. A bollard that moves under impact will only make an attack more dangerous, as it could spread debris that could cause a hazard.